The new building wall materials is to point to to consumption cultivated land, not damage the ecological and environmental pollution, adapt to the cost of the ministry of construction, the construction of its industrialization of product to reduce the construction site, improve the building function wet lessons of such modern construction development requirements and produce of wall material, and in our country is to point to except for the ShiXinZhuan all building outside clay wall materials. Our country new wall materials production to rapidly increase, the product quality and product be remarkably improved, technology and equipment level also faster progress.
A, external wall thermal insulation technology and energy saving material
1, the new wall materials development
New wall materials in our country is developing fast, 1987 years of new wall materials production for 18.45 billion pieces of scale to 1997 brick, increase to 184.988 billion pieces of scale brick, increased tenfold, new wall materials in the ratio of total wall materials rose from 4.58% to 25.2%.
New walling material breed more, mainly including brick, block, board, such as clay hollow bricks, mixed with waste clay bricks, the clay brick, building block, aerated concrete, lightweight plank, composite plank to wait, but small in the runoff, wall materials to the stronghold than smaller will again. Only make various new body materials adjust measures to local conditions fast development, to change wall material is not reasonable product structure to save energy and protect arable land, make use of the industry waste residues, promote the purpose of architectural technology.
Through nearly 20 years of research and development in the first self foreign technology and equipment in China, produce the wall material industry has started to many varieties development road, initially formed with piece board give priority to the wall materials system, such as concrete hollow blocks, paper face plasterboard, fiber cement sandwich board, but representative wall material level of various light modern composite board, the proportion of small still, less than 1% of the total in the whole wall material, and the industry developed countries, with relatively backward 40-50 years. Mainly displays in: product class is low, the small scale of the enterprise, process equipment, complete ability is poor behind. New wall materials development, one of the important reasons is slow to solid clay brick limit, inadequate lack of detailed measures to protect the land resources, to destroy the land price for clay brick capital is extremely low, manufacturing has made any new wall materials in a price cannot competition. In 1994 the new tax system, after practice of clay brick produce enterprise only 6% of the value added tax collection, and many new wall materials, especially the light will be required to pay 17% of the plate is value added tax official, adding to a new wall materials development of negative situation. In view of this situation, the three countries game (the ministry of construction, ministry of agriculture, ministry of land and resources and the national building) wall materials innovation actively guide for all your kind effort office wall materials, combining with the actual work innovation around, introduced a number of wall change policies, which promoted the development of the new wall materials.
2, new building materials of wall body types, features and subject
The new building wall material special fund collection and use management measures of the new building will be divided into 6 wall materials of: (1) the clay brick, including holes is more than 25% the clay sintering porous brick and hollow bricks, concrete hollow bricks and hollow blocks, sintering confined shale brick; (2) building block, including ordinary concrete hollow blocks small, lightweight aggregate concrete small hollow blocks, the autoclaved aerated concrete block and gesso block; (3) building plank, including glass fiber reinforced cement light porous partition board, fiber reinforced article lower alkalinity cement building plate, the autoclaved aerated concrete board, lightweight aggregate concrete, steel wire rack bar cement sandwich board, gypsum wallboard, metal and sandwich board, composite light sandwich partition panel, the board; (4) raw materials by no less than 30% of the industry waste residues, crops straw, garbage, rivers of mud wall materials; (5) precast and cast-in-situ concrete wall; (6) steel structure and glass curtain wall.
As the national promotion new building wall material, and ShiXinZhuan compared with traditional clay, at the technical level a lot of great function the upper hand. Its characteristic mainly in the following aspects: thermal insulation function such as well aerated concrete block, steel wire rack fire core board, keel plasterboard, etc.; Good water seepage control such as brick class and block wall materials and gypsum plank of; Sound insulation function better such as coal ash sintered brick, autoclaved herein; Low energy consumption, new building materials and wall materials need than traditional clay ShiXinZhuan energy consumption to a low; High strength grade; Light weight, be helpful for ground treatment and earthquake. In addition, new building wall material can shorten the construction period, save mortar, thus increasing use area, etc.
Subject analysis at present our country new building materials mainly exist the following topics: new wall materials should be new building materials science and technology content high, often the price higher than the current use of general materials for market promotion, the restriction role; Materials of construction technology, technical and testing methods at present, there is no standard limit, the department product quality is not not disorderly; Individual benefit driving influence the development of the new body materials application and promotion and so on.
Hogwash oil everywhere, you will also go out to eat?nergy saving material
In the building, the structure of the periphery of heat loss is bigger, the structure and outer wall accounts for a big share. So the building wall reform and wall body energy saving of the development of the technology of building energy saving technology is one of the most important aspects of exterior wall thermal insulation technology, development and energy-saving building materials is the main energy saving realization. Exterior wall insulation construction, is the internal and external wall structure in the insulation layer do. Insulation construction speed is quick, control and flexible, can guarantee the construction progress. Insulation application time is longer, mature technology, construction technology and maintenance scale is more perfect. In the 2001 years of exterior wall thermal insulation construction about 90% or more of the engineering application insulation technology.
Is the widespread of insulation technology is: strengthening the plaster composite polystyrene insulation board, polymer mortar composite polystyrene insulation board, reinforced cement composite insulation board, interior wall stick polystyrene polystyrene paint with gypsum and wipe polystyrene particles insulation pulp and cracking mortar pressure into the practice of huayao cloth.
But insulation will take up much use area, “hot bridge” subject difficult to solve, easy cause craze, will also affect the construction speed, the influence of the decorating, residents and interior wall hanging and fixed thing also easily destroy insulation structure. Insulation in the technical is not reasonable sex, decided its external insulation must be replaced.
Second, external thermal insulation technology and its characteristics
External thermal insulation is the promotion of a full building thermal insulation energy-saving technology. The insulation, heat preservation and with justice, technology has its great better sex, use the same specifications, the same size and function of external thermal insulation heat preservation material, than the insulation effect is good. External thermal insulation technology not only for the new structure and engineering, also used for buildings and transformation, and used in range, high technical content; External thermal insulation wrapped in the main structure of the lateral to protect main body structure, extend the life of the building; Reduce the building structure, increase the thermal bridge building effective space; While eliminating condensation, progress of stay quiet degrees.
At present more mature of exterior wall thermal insulation technology basically has the following kinds.
A. hanging outside external thermal insulation
Plug the heat preservation material have rock (mine) cotton, glass cotton blanket, polystyrene foam board (hereinafter referred to as polystyrene, EPS, XPS), ceramsite concrete composite polystyrene imitate stone decoration insulation board, steel wire rack sandwich panels, etc. One of polystyrene for has excellent physical function and cheap capital, had been in the world within the scope of the external wall thermal insulation plugin technology has been widely used.
This plugin technology is the bonding mortar or special fixed things that will heat preservation material posted on the wall, hang out, then wipe cracking mortar, pressure into the glass fiber grid cloth formation protection layer, finally add make decoration noodles.
Still have a kind of way is using special fixed things that will not easily bibulous various insulation board fixed on the wall outside, and then will aluminum plate, natural stone, color, such as glass, in advance of the plug-in production on keel, form directly face decoration. Mr. B design by the bank of China, head of the office building of external thermal insulation is using this design.
This kind of hanging outside external thermal insulation installation time consuming, difficult construction, and construction project, to occupy the leading subject after acceptance before we can carry out the construction. The top when construction, construction of the safety of the staff is not easy to get ensuring.
B. polystyrene and wall body a pouring shape
The technology is in concrete box-will cut system of polystyrene placed inside buildings within the template, period of the lateral wall will close by, and then pouring concrete, concrete and polystyrene a pouring shape for composite wall. This technology to solve the main topic of external thermal insulation hanging type, the upper hand is very significant. Because the external wall thermal insulation layer a subject and survival, efficiency greatly shorten the construction period, progress, and the safety of the staff construction is assured. And in the winter when construction, the role of the heat preservation of polystyrene up, can reduce the heat preservation measures periphery palisade. But in pouring concrete to pay attention, continuous casting an average, because otherwise the influence of the lateral pressure concrete can cause of polystyrene in dismantling formwork came after deformation and wrong chi, after construction sequence influence.
Among them the built-in polystyrene plate can be double wire nets, also can be single steel wire nets. Double wire nets polystyrene and concrete connections, is mainly dependent on the network and the lateral wall steel reinforcement in concrete and binding and polystyrene adhesion, relay, its combination with the well functioning, with high safety. Single steel wire nets polystyrene and concrete connections, mainly depends on concrete and polystyrene glue relay and oblique reinforced, L steel etc in the anchoring force with concrete wall, combined with the function is better also. And double steel wire, steel wire with a single technology for steel wire nets and cancelled the installation of the lateral plate before insulation board plastering, save the working time and materials. And the cost can be reduced by 10% or so.
But the two approaches are adopting steel wire rack, cost is higher, and steel is a good conductor of heat, heat transfer directly, the lower the wall body heat preservation effect.
We for concrete and no rack of polystyrene a molding composite wall were studied. Test results show that the concrete of the stabilized the premise of right amount, directly for the use of concrete as adhesive to paste of polystyrene, it is completely possible. When we of polyphony board on the back of the deal later, its and concrete sticky relay further progress (its uniform adhesive strength can reach 0.07 Mpa, and destroy all happened in polystyrene board inside). The technology to cancel the wire rack, its heat preservation function progress, and the capital of board down again. Through the long-term durability in argument can be applied in engineering, after use.
C. polystyrene particles of exterior wall thermal insulation heat preservation pulp
Will be abandoned polystyrene plastic (referred to as EPS) processing break into 0.5 ~ 4 mm particles, as a lightweight aggregate to preparation of insulation mortar. The technology include thermal insulation layer, crack protective layer and anti-permeability protection layer (layer or seepage control crack two mortar layer). Among them the ZL adhesive powder polystyrene particle heat preservation material and technology in 1998 by the ministry of construction listed national process. This method is currently are widely accepted the external wall thermal insulation technology.
The construction technology is simple, can reduce the labor intensity, progress work efficiency; From the structure, the influence of quality differences to the defect of the wall construction metope when does not need to repair make level, directly in the pulp ZhaoBu heat preservation can, avoid the other insulation construction technology for make level too thick and loss of external thermal insulation phenomenon. At the same time, this technology to solve external wall thermal insulation engineering for use by bad interface layer easy premise debonding empty drum, facing easy to crack, etc, so as to realize the topic of external thermal insulation technology important breakthrough. And other external thermal insulation match is in reach the same, heat preservation effect, its capital is low, can reduce housing construction cost. For example and polystyrene with external thermal insulation is, every square metre can reduce 25 yuan. In tianjin cloud of exterior wall thermal insulation engineering confirming bridal chamber top the is that the technology.
In addition, insulation energy-saving wall technology and wall body make it interlining, put the perlite, wood chips, mineral wool, cotton, glass polystyrene foamed plastic, polyurethane foam plastics (also can field foaming) and fill in the sandwich, form thermal insulation layer.
Three, the With all sorts of new building wall material build houses, and to see the ultimate product commodity house cost can be accepted market. With new building wall material’s building and the cost is can be done completely accepted by market, the topic is now some place, no serious research building system, or is in the wrong method, in view of the cost comparison to seriously consider comprehensive benefit of energy-saving building favorable policies, as long as the entire and comprehensive analysis of the economic, really choose building system, does what one can propaganda, change the past always thought that the new building materials than brick house building your ideas for new building materials can house in more places promotion. From long-term interests, social interest, gradually create the new building wall material not design, don’t use it, the energy conservation construction examination and approval, no sales, not not shelter good atmosphere. The new building wall materials for the development and application of long and lasting social need attention, and not any new building wall materials are fitting for any time in any area development, so should be based on the details of each city and county to determine the recent and future development of the varieties and yield, with all kinds of different regions respectively, building wall engineering requirements.